Glossary Terms
term definition network copier color
10/100 Terminology for an ethernet network capable of sending data at either 10 megabits or 100 megabits. x    
10bT Pronounced "10 base T". The RJ-45 connector used on an Ethernet network; capable of transmitting data at 10 megbits per second. x    
A4 (European paper sizes A,B) European (Japanese, etc.) use letter designations (in millimeters) for specific paper sizes. These are different than the US designations (Letter, Legal, Ledger).   x  
ADF (see DADF, RADF) Automatic Document Feeder. A device used for automatically feeding multiple pages into a printer or scanner.   x  
aftermarket  The sale of service & supplies to customers on an ongoing basis.   x  
analog Refers to the process of producing a copy by means of reflecting light off of the original and onto a photoconductive material or drum. Analog machines are characterized by a lack of features and poorer image quality than a digital device. x x  
bins  Old-style analog copiers used multiple bins or exit trays to collate (or separate) the output.   x  
bond  A standard type of copy or print paper.      
booklet The process of imposing or arranging the pages on duplexed documents so they appear in the correct order when folded in half.   x  
bridge unit  Some add-on finishers require a bridge unit to connect to the copier itself.   x  
business color  A general class of color printing that is characterized by lower requirements around color accuracy. Business color usually refers to things like PowerPoint presentations - most any situation where spot color is being used and doesn't have to exactly match a specific printed or Pantone color (or the need for halftone reproduction).     x
buy-out  The amount owed at the end of a lease in order to own the equipment outright (the residual). Sometimes the buy out is rolled in with the remaining stream of payments in order to upgrade a customer before the lease is up.   x  
bypass tray An input paper source on a copier, fax or printer that is generally used for feeding specialty paper into a machine. The bypass tray is usually characterized by lower volume, occasionally use and the ability to feed heavier stocks.   x  
cabinet (see stand)  Most non-desktop copiers require a specific stand for them to sit on. On some models, this stand may be substituted for an additional set of paper drawers or cassettes.   x  
card reader  usually a credit card style reading device for controlling access to a copy machine.   x  
cash deal  A sale structured around an outright purchase price rather than a lease   x  
cassette (see drawer) The holding area for the paper in either a copier or printer.   x  
clicks  Pages produced on an output device; either copies or prints. 5,000 clicks per month means 5,000 pages or copies per month.   x  
CMYK  Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and blacK; the process of generating a color image by absorbing light and reflecting what's left. This is a complimentary process to RGB color generation. CMYK is the process for all commercial printing and most color copiers. CMYK images are characterized as less vibrant than RGB (smaller color gamut).     x
collate (see sort) The means by which original sets are separated from each other for easy identification.   x  
color calibration Usually an electrical process of setting the image quality (and color correctness) to a known standard such as a test sheet.     x
color separation The process of separating an electronic or hardcopy image into 4 base color components (CMYK) in preparation for printing on a color press.     x
coverage  a term used to describe how much information (toner usage) is on a piece of paper. A standard business document is generally thought to contain between 8 and 14% coverage.   x  
CPC  Cost Per Copy; refers to a type of sale where the equipment, service and finance charges are rolled into a single, per impression (click) charge. CPC deals are generally sold with a minimum number of copies referred to as the base.   x  
CPM  Copies Per Minute - the maximum speed that an output device is capable of delivering paper to the output. May be affected by job specifics such as stapling or sorting and may be affected by the data stream.   x  
CRD  Central Reproduction Department. In a larger company, the room with the "big" copier in it. CRDs are generally responsible for large print and copy jobs, specialty binding, etc.   x  
creative color (see Graphic Color) Creative Color refers to the upper-end requirements for color printing and copying. Creative color generally refers to customers with needs such as matching specific colors (Pantone), matching previously printed output, etc. Frequently creative color customers are using Macintosh computers.     x
DADF (see RADF) Duplexing or Recirculating Document Feeder. An automatic document feeder capable of reading both sides of an original in a single pass.   x  
data stream A general term that refers to the electronic signal going to a printer. The data stream carries the PDL (page description language) information. x    
densitometer  A device used to measure the color shade and density from a printed image. Used in conjunction with a printed test target and calibration software to set a color machine to a known value.     x
desktop  A copier, printer or fax that does not require a stand of its own. It's capable of sitting directly on a counter or desktop.   x  
digital The new "breed" of copiers. Digital copiers scan to a digital image and print on the integrated laser printer to produce the copy. Because the image is digital, the quality is better and features such as reduction and enlargement are easier to implement because they are done in software. x x  
document feeder (see ADF, DADF, RADF)  The generic term for an automatic document feeder; a way feeding a stack of paper into a copier or scanner unattended.   x  
domain  A domain can be either or single server or multiple servers acting as on single network.  x    
domain controller  The central compter in the domain that is responsible for authenticationg or verifiying a user's logon name and password. x    
dot matrix printer  A printer that creates characters and graphics by means of a small row of wires on its print head. The wires move forward and strike the paper through an inked ribbon, creating small dots on the page that make up the image. Dot matrix printer are characterized by extremely low quality print and high ribbon costs. x    
DPI  Dots Per Inch. The measure of resolution or the amount of information in a digital file. Also, a printing term used to indicate output quality. x x  
drawer (see cassette)  The holding area for the paper in either a copier or printer.   x  
duplex  Information on both sides of the document. Usually refers to output or printing, but can also be used to describe the original documents. Duplexed documents can be long edge (opens like a book) or short edge (opens like a clip board).   x  
duty cycle  A term that refers to the amount of work that can be expected from a particular device (scanner, copier, printer, fax, etc). Duty Cycle is frequently an arbitrary number and may be hard to compare from one manufacture to another. Service technicians can be resources for determining real-world duty cycle numbers based on actual experience. Usually calculated on a monthly basis.   x  
EDM  Electronic Document Management; the process of storing and retrieving document, both scanned images and electronic files, in a centrally controlled and secured location. x    
engine  An "engine" (short for Print-Engine) is the portion of a digital device that is responsible for printing.   x  
enterprise  Generally the term enterprise refers to larger, more spread out networks. Companies that look at "Enterprise" solutions are looking at larger, more costly systems; usually to cover multiple servers and a large number of end-users.      
envelope feeder  an attachment that generally inserts into a paper drawer for the purpose of feeding envelopes.   x  
Ethernet A type of physical network connection. Ethernet uses a specific kind of wire, connector and way of communicating on the network. If the customer uses Ethernet, their network connected equipment must use Ethernet. x    
Excahnge email An email server that utilizes Microsoft Exchange rather than SMTP or Lotus Notes. Customers who use Exchange email have to use email devices that are capable of working with it. x x  
fax  Short for facsimile (a copy). A facsimile machine sends a digitized copy of a document through a phone line to another fax machine.   x  
finisher  An add-on accessory for a copier or printer that provides the finishing options; stapling, collating or sorting, folding, hole punching, etc.   x  
finishing  The term used to describe how you want your printed output to be physically handled; stapled, collated, sorted, folded, etc.   x  
firmware  A physical memory chip containing software. The software can be changed by a technician through a process of "burning" or "flashing" new instructions onto the chip. Firmware is used inside copiers to control internal operations and features. x    
first copy output time  The time it takes from pressing the "copy" button to receiving the first page in the exit tray.   x  
FTP  File Transfer Protocol. A protocol or set of instructions for how a file is transferred on a network from point A to point B. If two different computers or pieces of hardware both support FTP, they can share files back and forth. x    
gamut The color Gamut is a measure of the maximum number of colors reproducible by any given technology. The color gamut for an RGB image displayed on a color monitor will be larger than for one printed on a CMYK printer or press.     x
giga (G)  1,000 million or billion. 1G = 1,000M = 1,000,000,000. x    
gigabit ethernet  The same RJ-45 connector used for 10bT but on a network capable of transmitting data at 1,000 megabits or 1 gigabit. x    
graphic color (see Creative Color)  Graphic Color and Creative Color are terms that are used interchangeably.     x
GUI  Graphical User Interface. The interface to a computer program. Windows is a graphical interface while DOS was a text based interface. x    
hard drive  Most Print Controllers have hard drives in them just like computers. The hard drive is used for spooling (or copying) print jobs from the network very quickly and then storing them until the print engine is ready to print that job. x    
hardware The physical pieces of a computer or network device such as the hard drive, main board, etc. x    
high volume  A general term that refers to printers or copiers - usually in the Segment 5 and above range.   x  
ICC Profile  ICC profiles are definition files that allow color mapping between devices with different color gamuts. ICC profiles are a controlled way of moving between devices that are not capable of producing the same range of colors.     x
imaging  A general term that refers to either putting marks on a page (printing or copying) or scanning (digitizing) a document. x    
imposition  The process of rearranging pages in a "booklet" order. If you fold a single piece of paper in half, page 1 and 4 are on side A while pages 2 and 3 are on side B.   x  
inkjet printer  A type of printing that utilizes a print head capable of squirting tiny bubbles of ink to create dots on the page. The dots, similar to a dot matrix printer, form characters and images. Inkjet printers provide good quality but are expensive to operate because of the cost of the ink cartridges. x    
interposer (see post process inserter)  An add-on accessory for a copier or printer that provides the ability to insert a document after the fuser. Since the fuser is hot and tends to pull off toner from previously printed documents, interposers are used to insert these types of documents into a finished set without sending them through the copier or printer.   x  
ISIS (see TWAIN)  An ISIS driver is a piece of software that allows an application program to talk to a scanner. If a program is ISIS compatible then you must use an ISIS compatible scanner with that software. Most MFPs that can scan DO NOT have ISIS drivers. Generally you need a standalone scanner when an ISIS scanner is required. x    
jog (jogger)  the process of offset (physically shifting) stacking a copied (or printed) set in order to separate it from the other sets.   x  
kilo (k)  1,000 or add 3 zeros. 50k = 50,000. x    
laser printer  A type of printer that utilized a laser beam to actually draw the printed image onto a photoconductive material. The material then comes in contact with toner, which sticks to the image drawn by the laser. Finally, the tone image is transferred to paper. Laser printers provide good quality. x    
LCT (see Paper Deck)  Large Capacity Tray. An add-on accessory for a copier or printer that allows for large amounts of paper to be loaded. Usually in the range of 1,000 to 3,000 sheets.   x  
LDAP  Light Directory Access Protocol. A way of maintaining address book information for email addresses in a central server and then pulling that information into the copier or MFP. x x  
leasing  Similar to auto leasing. The customer pays a base charge for a set number of months. Generally, the customer does not own the equipment at the end of the lease.   x  
Ledger  US 11 x 17 paper size.   x  
Legal US 8 1/2 x 14 paper size.   x  
Letter  US 8 1/2 x 11 paper size.   x  
line printer A general data processing term that refers to a large, high speed printer for producing output on pin fed or continuous feed paper. x    
Lotus Notes  An email server that utilizes a program called Lotus Notes rather than SMTP or Microsoft Exchange. Customers who use Lotus Notes email have to use email devices that are capable of working with it. x x  
low volume  A general term that refers to lower volume printers or copiers - usually in the Segment 2 and below range.   x  
mailbox  a virtual location for storing print or copy jobs; usually on the hard drive of the print controller. Occationaly the term may be used to indicate a physical set of output bins or trays.   x  
MEAP  Multifunctional Embedded Application Platform. A Canon technology used for running programs on the copier controller.   x  
mega (M) 000,000 or add 6 zeros. 1.6M = 1,600,000 x    
MFP (sometimes MFD)  Multifunction Product (or Device). The term used to describe a digital copier that can be used as a network printer, scanner or fax machine.   x  
mid volume A general term that refers to printers or copiers - usually in the Segment 3 - 4 range.   x  
mil  a thousanth of a dollar or 1 tenth of a cent. $0.001. The most common increment for talking about copy cost. i.e. "the toner portion of the contract was 4 mils or $0.004"   x  
multi-PDL  A print controller (or RIP) capable of interpreting more than one PDL (page description language). Most copier multi-PDLs will work with PCL and Postscript. x x  
network  A group of 2 or more computers connected by a network cable for the purpose of sharing files, programs or devices. x    
network drop  A "network-speak" term that usually means an RJ45 connection. In order to connect the copier, you'll need a network drop here. x x  
NIB  Network Interface Board. Same as a NIC x x  
NIC  Network Interface Card. A piece of hardware that connects a device (copier, printer, computer) to the actual network cable. x    
paper deck  see Large Capacity Tray.   x  
parallel  A type of printer (or data) cable that transfers data 8 bits at a time. Basically if your equipment has a parallel connection, you need a parallel cable to connect to it. A network connection IS NOT a parallel connection. x    
PCL  Page Control Language. Developed by HP for Windows printing, PCL has traditionally been thought of as a lower end printing solution used primarily for office documents. Today, the gap between PCL and Postscript is nearly non-existent, but PS still has an edge in graphics applications (and is required for MAC printing). x x  
PDF  Portable Document Format. A proprietary document file format created by Adobe Systems. PDF has become a defacto standard for sharing of documents because of its ability to lock down the format, share files cross-platform and the availability of the free viewer. x    
platen  The glass on the top of a copier where a document is placed for copying.   x  
POP/ POP3 A protocol used for receiving email across the internet. x    
post process inserter  see Interposer   x  
Postscript  A PDL (page description language) developed by Adobe Systems. Macintosh systems only print using Postscript. Postscript is generally characterized as being an upper end, higher quality language than PCL. Most high end color printer use Postscript. x   x
print controller (see RIP)  The print controller generally refers to the RIP (raster image processor) and the NIC (network interface card). The Print Controller is responsible for making a copier into a printer. x x  
pull scan (see push scan)  The process of scanning by using a host application such as Adobe Acrobat of Photoshop. The image is "pulled" into the software application at the workstation or PC. x x  
push scan (see pull scan)  The process of scanning to file (or to email) from a Multi-Funtion Product. The transaction or scan is completed from the device and therefore "pushed" out to a network share, folder or email address.  x x  
RADF Recirculating Automatic Document Feeder. An automatic document feeder that sends the paper through twice, flipping it over to read the other side.   x  
ream  A package of paper that is 500 sheets. (10 reams=1 case of paper)   x  
resolution  How much information is in a digital file or scanned image. Usually expressed in DPI (dots per inch) or LPI (lines per inch). x x x
RFP Request For Proposal. A request from a customer to "bid" on a system or group of equipment based on a set of specifications.    x  
RGB Red, Green, Blue; the process of generating color by projecting light rather than absorbing it (CMYK). RGB combines the projected light from  the primary colors to produce a color image. RGB is how a computer monitor generates color. RGB images are characterized as brighter and more vibrant (wider color gamut) than CMYK images.     x
RIP Raster Image Processor. A device responsible for taking the output of the print driver and turning it into raster (dot) information so that the laser can draw the image to be printed. Sometimes used interchangeably with Print Controller. x x  
RJ-11  Either a 2 or 4 pin phone line connector. x    
RJ-45  An 8 pin, phone-style connector used on Ethernet networks. x    
RPCS Refined Print Command Stream. A Ricoh specific process similar to Canon's UFR printing.   x  
saddle stitch The process of stapling a document on the fold as in booklet printing.   x  
scan to email  The process of utilizing a copier as a scanner with the express purpose of sending the hardcopy document to an email address. x x  
scan to file  Refers to the process of utilizing a copier as a scanner. x x  
scanner  A device used for digitizing hardcopy documents. x x  
scanning  Refers to the process of  turning hard copy paper documents into electronic files (digitizing). x x  
segment 1 Copiers from 11 to 20 pages per minute.   x  
segment 2  Copiers from 21 to 30 pages per minute.   x  
segment 3  Copiers from 31 to 45 pages per minute.   x  
segment 4  Copiers from 46 to 69 pages per minute.   x  
segment 5  Copiers from 70 to 90 pages per minute.   x  
segment 6  Copiers from 91 (and up) pages per minute.   x  
server  A centrally located computer dedicated to a specific, shared task such as sharing files and/or printers. x    
SMTP  Simple Mail Transport Protocol. A common internet email protocol frequently found on MFPs. x    
software  The written instructions or code that a computer uses to do something useful. Microsoft Word is an example of a software package or application. x    
sort  see Collate   x  
stand  see Cabinet   x  
thermal printing A method of printing an image by heating up specially treated paper (thermal paper). Heat causes the paper to turn black. Thermal prints are characterized by poor storage (fades in the sun) poor longevity (only last a few years before fading) and expense. Generally used in older fax machines. x x  
thermal transfer printing  A method of printing using heat to transfer ink from a mylar sheet onto plain bond paper. Thermal  transfer prints hold up and store well but are more expensive to produce. Generally used in older fax machines. x x  
token ring  A type of network layout (or topology) that requires a specific kind of NIC. If the customer has a Token Ring network, they must use Token Ring NICs Interface cards. Very rare today, but still in use. x    
toner  An electrically charged powder used for creating the image on a print or a copy.   x  
tray (see bin)  Generally refers to an exit location for paper but some manufacturers use the term "input trays" interchangeably with cassettes or drawers.   x  
TWAIN (see ISIS)  A TWAIN driver is a piece of software that allows an application program to talk to a scanner. If a program is TWAIN compatible then you must use a TWAIN compatible scanner with that software. Most MFPs that can scan have TWAIN drivers. x    
UFR  Ultra Fast Rendering. A means of printing (Canon only) that utilizes the power of the customer's desktop computer as the RIP for the printer.   x  
workgroup  A term that usually refers to a small group of computers or computer users. x    
workstation A computer at someones desk is referred to as a workstation computer or sometimes a desktop computer. x    

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